Friday, May 19, 2017

The Final Assault Leading To The Marihuana Tax Act Of 1937

(This is Part 2 in a Four Part Series on the corruption that lead to Cannabis and Hemp Prohibition)

It was in the early 1930s that the Rockefellers with Standard Oil, DuPont, Dow, William R. Hearst, Mellon, and Harry Anslinger were building their companies and seeing huge profits from their investments and monopolies on oil, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and timber. It is also the same time they realized that industrial hemp was an enormous threat to their investments. And how Industrial hemp was an excellent source of food oil, fuel, medicine, paper, and textiles.

At the time, Andrew Mellon was the current U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. Along with his banking firm, Mellon also branched into industrial activities of oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction. Mellon was one of the wealthiest people in the United States, the third-highest income-taxpayer in the mid-1920s, behind John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford.  While he served as Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Department his wealth peaked at around $300–$400 million in 1929–1930. Mellon’s niece was married to Harry Anslinger, who was also out of a job since America ended it’s prohibition of alcohol. To keep his family employed, Mellon created a new division of the federal government, the Bureau of Narcotics (this is now the Drug Enforcement Agency -DEA), and made Harry Anslinger the new head of that program.

Rockefeller started out in business as a wholesale grocer and went on to found Standard Oil in Cleveland(OH), which through shrewd business decisions and some say predatory and illegal practices, grew to be a gargantuan monopoly. At its peak, Standard Oil had about 90% of the market for refined oil (kerosene) in the United States. In the early days of Standard Oil, gasoline wasn't an important component of the oil industry, so gasoline produced by the refineries were dumped in rivers because they were considered useless!

This is also the same time of Rudolf Diesel's mysterious death that ended up being ruled a suicide. If it wasn’t for Rudolf Diesel’s untimely death, his plans of providing a diesel engine that would be run on hemp seed oil would have provided the farming industry a tool that farmers could have powered with a fuel source they grew (hemp) and produce.  A self reliant farm.

While all this was devised by Andrew Mellon, his banking firm was also backing and invested in DuPont and the Hearst News-Journalism empire. Harry Anslinger got some additional help from William R Hearst too, and his huge chain of newspapers. Hearst had lots of reasons to help; he had invested heavily in the timber industry to support his newspaper chain and didn't want to see the development of hemp paper in competition. Hearst had also lost 800,000 acres of timberland to Pancho Villa, further fueling his hatred of Mexicans. In addition to writing and telling lurid lies about Mexicans (and the devil marijuana weed causing violence) sold newspapers, making even more wealthy.

Some samples from the Hearst-era San Francisco Examiner:
"Marihuana makes fiends of boys in thirty days -- Hashish goads users to bloodlust."

"By the tons it is coming into this country -- the deadly, dreadful poison that racks and tears not only the body, but the very heart and soul of every human being who once becomes a slave to it in any of its cruel and devastating forms.... Marihuana is a short cut to the insane asylum. Smoke marihuana cigarettes for a month and what was once your brain will be nothing but a storehouse of horrid specters. Hasheesh makes a murderer who kills for the love of killing out of the mildest mannered man who ever laughed at the idea that any habit could ever get him...."
And other nationwide columns...

"Users of marijuana become STIMULATED as they inhale the drug and are LIKELY TO DO ANYTHING. Most crimes of violence in this section, especially in country districts are laid to users of that drug."

"Was it marijuana, the new Mexican drug, that nerved the murderous arm of Clara Phillips when she hammered out her victim's life in Los Angeles?... THREE-FOURTHS OF THE CRIMES of violence in this country today are committed by DOPE SLAVES -- that is a matter of cold record."
Hearst and Anslinger were then supported by DuPont chemical company and various pharmaceutical companies in the effort to outlaw cannabis. Dupont had patented nylon, and wanted hemp removed as competition. The pharmaceutical companies could neither identify nor standardize cannabis dosages, and besides, with cannabis, folks could grow their own medicine and not have to purchase it from large companies. Why would these United States of America want to allow that kind of FREEDOM and INDEPENDANCE...

After two years of secret planning, Anslinger brought his plan to Congress, complete with a scrapbook full of sensational Hearst editorials, stories of ax murderers who had supposedly smoked marijuana, and racial slurs. This all set the stage for the transcripts from Harry Anslinger at a meeting of the Ways and Means Committee. These statements were made, and also used as propaganda by Hearst in order to influence members to pass the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.
(The following excerpts are from:
MR. ANSLINGER: Mr. Chairman, my name is H. J. Anslinger; I am Commissioner of Narcotics in the Bureau of Narcotics, in the Treasury Department.

Mr. Chairman and distinguished members of the Ways and Means Committee, this traffic in marihuana is increasing to such an extent that it has come to the be cause for the greatest national concern.
This drug is as old as civilization itself. Homer wrote about, as a drug that made me forget their homes, and that turned them into swine. In Persia, a thousand years before Christ, there was a religious and military order founded which was called the Assassins and they derived their name from the drug called hashish which is now known in this country as marihuana. They were noted for their acts of cruelty, and the word “assassin” very aptly describes the drug.

The plant from which the drugs comes is a hardy annual, growing from 3 to 16 feet in height.

Marihuana is the same as Indian hemp, hashish. It is sometimes cultivated in backyards. Over here in Maryland some of it has been found, and last fall we discovered three acres of it in the Southwest.

As I say, marihuana is the same as Indian hemp, and is sometimes found as a residual weed, and sometimes as the result of a dissemination of birdseed. It is known as cannabin, cannabis Americana, or Cannabis Sativa. Marihuana is the Mexican term for cannabis indica. We seem to have adopted the Mexican terminology, and we call it marihuana, which means good feeling. In the underworld it is referred to by such colorful, colloquial names as reefer, muggles, Indian hay, hot hay, and weed. It is known in various countries by a variety of names.

MR. LEWIS: In literature it is known as hashish, is it not?

MR. ANSLINGER: Yes, sir. There is a great deal of use of it in Egypt, particularly. It was found years ago in Egypt. The traffic has grown so that something like 14 percent of the population are addicts. In India it is sold over the counter to the addicts, direct, and there it is known as bhang and ganja.

At the Geneva Convention is 1895 the term “cannabis” included only the dried flowering or fruiting top of the pistillate plant as the plant source of the dangerous resin, from which the resin had not been extracted. That designation was used in the uniform State act. “but research that has been made during the past few months has shown that this definition is not sufficient, because it has been found by experiment that the leaves of the pistillate plant as well as the leaves of the staminate plant contain the active principle up to 50 percent of the strength prescribed by the United States Pharmacopoeia.

So we have urged the States to revise their definition so as to include all parts of the plant, as it now seems that the seeds and portions other than the dried flowering tops contain positively dangerous substances.

We were anticipating a challenge in one of the States of that old definition. There was a case in Florida recently in which a defendant appealed to a higher court on the ground that the prosecution had not proven that this was the dried flowered top of the pistillate plant.

In medical schools, the physician-to-be is taught that without opium he would be like a one-armed man. That is true, because you cannot get along without opium.

But here we have drug that is not like opium. Opium has all of the good of Dr. Jekyll and all the evil of Mr. Hyde. This drug is entirely the monster Hyde, the harmful effect of which cannot be measured.

MR. DINGELL: I want to be certain what this is. Is this the same weed that grows wild in some of our Western States which is sometimes called the loco weed?

MR. ANSLINGER: No, sir, that is another family.

MR. DINGELL: That is also a harmful drug-producing weed, is it not?

MR. ANSLINGER: Not to my knowledge. It is not used by humans.

THE CHAIRMAN: In what particular sections does this weed grow wild?

MR. ANSLINGER: In almost every state in the Union today.

MR. REED:   It is not Indian hemp?(No Harry Reed is Not that old)

MR. ANSLINGER: It is Indian hemp. We have some specimens here.

MR. VINSON: When was this brought to your attention as being a menace among our own people?

MR. ANSLINGER: About ten years ago.

MR. VINSON: Why did you wait until 1937 to bring in a recommendation of this kind?

MR. ANSLINGER: Ten years ago we only heard about it throughout the Southwest. It is only in the last few years that it has become a national menace. It has grown like wildfire, but it has only become a national menace in the last three years. It is only in the last two years that we have had to send reports about it to the League of Nations. **Note: It was Rockefeller who supported the League of Nations**

MR. VINSON: We did not have to have any convention adopted by the League of Nations in order to legislate on this subject?

MR. ANSLINGER: No; but it was covered in one of the conventions.

MR. ANSLINGER: It is only in the last two years that we have a report of seizures anywhere but in the Southwest. Last year, New York State reported 195 tons seized, whereas before that I do not believe that New York could have reported one ton seized.

Let me quote from this report to the League of Nations:

This discussion disclosed that, from the medical point of view in some countries the use of Indian hemp in its various forms is regarded as in no way indispensable and that it is therefore possible that little objection would be raised to drafting limitations upon medical use of derivatives.

That is only last year.

Here is what Dr. J. Bouquet, hospital pharmacist at Tunis, and inspector of pharmacists at Tunis, says. He is the outstanding expert on cannabis in the world. He says:

To sum up, Indian hemp, like many other medicaments, has enjoyed for a time a vogue which is not justified by the results obtained. Therapeutics would not lose much if it were removed from the list of medicaments.

That comes from the greatest authority on cannabis in the world today.

MR. MCCORMACK: What are its first manifestations, a feeling of grandeur and self-exaltation, and things of that sort?

MR. ANSLINGER: It affects different individuals in different ways. Some individuals have a complete loss of sense of time or a sense of value. They lose their sense of place. That have an increased feeling of physical strength and power.

Some people will fly into a delirious rage, and they are temporarily irresponsible and may commit violent crimes. Other people will laugh uncontrollably. It is impossible to say what the effect will be on any individual. Those research men who have tried it have always been under control. They have always insisted upon that.

MR. MCCORMACK: Is it used by the criminal class?

MR. ANSLINGER: Yes, it is. It is dangerous to the mind and body, and particularly dangerous to the criminal type, because it releases all of the inhibitions.

MR. ANSLINGER: No, sir: he would not touch that. Dr. Walter Bromberger, a distinguished psychiatrist in New York has made this statement:

Young men between the ages of 16 and 25 are frequent smokers of marihuana; even boys of 10 to 14 are initiated (frequently in school groups); to them as other; marijuana holds out the thrill. Since the economic depression the number of marihuana smokers has increased by vagrant youths coming into contact with older psychopaths.”

It was this propaganda, these statements, made before a very small meeting of Congress. After 30 minutes, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was enacted, mainly with the support and by strategic moves by Rockefeller, Hearst, DuPont, Dow, and other corporate entities who were threatened by industrial hemp.
The one person Anslinger hadn’t planned for, was the appearance by Dr. William C. Woodward, Legislative Council of the American Medical Association at the meeting.  They had tried hard to keep Dr. Woodward from attending the meeting and even knowing about it to allow the corruption to occur…(This writer knows all about that kinda treatment too as this still goes on today in the cannabis world with corrupt parties - right Morales…)

Woodward started by slamming Harry Anslinger and the Bureau of Narcotics for distorting earlier AMA statements that had nothing to do with marijuana and making them appear to be AMA endorsement for Anslinger's view.

He also reproached the legislature and the Bureau for using the term marijuana in the legislation and not publicizing it as a bill about cannabis or hemp. At this point, marijuana (or marihuana) was a sensationalist word used to refer to Mexicans smoking a drug and had not been connected in most people's minds to the existing cannabis/hemp plant. Thus, many who had legitimate reasons to oppose the bill weren't even aware of it. Also why, we today, need to drop the use of “marijuana” and use the proper and correct name in cannabis.

Woodward went on to state that the AMA was opposed to the legislation and further questioned the approach of the hearings, coming close to outright accusation of misconduct by Anslinger and the committee:(The following excerpts are from:
“SENATOR BROWN: Before we adjourn, I desire to place in the record a letter regarding the pending bill addressed to Senator Harrison by Dr. William C. Woodward, of the American Medical Association, Chicago, Ill.

American Medical Association
Bureau of Legal Medicine and Legislation
Chicago, July 10, 1937
Hon. Pat Harrison
Chairman, Committee on Finance, United States Senate
Washington D.C.

SIR: I have been instructed by the board of trustees of the American Medical Association to protest on behalf of the association against the enactment in it present form of so much of H.R. 6906 as relates to the medicinal use of cannabis and its preparations and derivatives. The act is entitled "An Act to impose an occupational excise tax upon certain dealers in marihuana, to impose a transfer tax upon certain dealings in marihuana, and to safeguard the revenue therefrom by registry and recording."

Cannabis and its preparations and derivatives are covered in the bill by the term "marihuana" as that term is defined in section 1, paragraph (b). There is no evidence, however, that the medicinal use of these drugs has caused or is causing cannabis addiction. As remedial agents, they are used to an inconsiderable extent, and the obvious purpose and effect of this bill is to impose so many restrictions on their use as to prevent such use altogether. Since the medicinal use of cannabis has not caused and is not causing addiction, the prevention of the use of the drug for medicinal purposes can accomplish no good end whatsoever. How far it may serve to deprive the public of the benefits of a drug that on further research may prove to be of substantial value, it is impossible to foresee.

The American Medical Association has no objection to any reasonable regulation of the medicinal use of cannabis and its preparations and derivatives. It does pretest, however, against being called upon to pay a special tax, to use special order forms in order to procure the drug, to keep special records concerning its professional use and to make special returns to the Treasury Department officials, as a condition precedent to the use of cannabis in the practice of medicine. in the several States, all separate and apart from the taxes, order forms, records, and reports required under the Harrison Narcotics Act with reference to opium and coca leaves and their preparations and derivatives.

If the medicinal use of cannabis calls for Federal legal regulation further than the legal regulation that now exists, the drug can without difficulty be covered under the provisions of the Harrison Narcotics Act by a suitable amendment. By such a procedure the professional use of cannabis may readily be controlled as effectively as are the professional uses of opium and coca leaves, with less interference with professional practice and less cost and labor on the part of the Treasury Department.

It has been suggested that the inclusion of cannabis into the Harrison Narcotics Act would jeopardize the constitutionality of that act, but that suggestion has been supported by no specific statements of its legal basis or citations of legal authorities.

Wm. C. Woodward,
Legislative Counsel
Whereupon at 11:37 AM Monday, July 12, 1937, the subcommittee adjourned.”

It was corporate greed and influence upon (and within) the government that allowed industrial hemp farming to be prohibited and replaced with foreign and domestic fossil fuels, synthetic chemicals and fibers, and heavy use of timber.
*Protection of Corporate Profits
*Yellow Journalism
*Ignorant, Incompetent, and/or Corrupt Legislators
*Personal Career Advancement and Greed

These are the actual reasons medical cannabis and hemp are Federally illegal today...and sadly problems America still faces.

Seven Facts Why Every State Should Legalize Hemp

According to the National Conference of State Legislators,  total of 28 states, the District of Columbia, Guam and Puerto Rico now allow for comprehensive public medical marijuana and cannabis programs and 17 more states allow use of "low THC, high cannabidiol (CBD)" products for medical reasons. Eight states and the District of Columbia now have legalized small amounts of marijuana for adult recreational use. State cannabis policy reform surged forward on Nov. 8, 2016, with voters in four states, California, Maine, Massachusetts and Nevada, approving adult-use recreational cannabis; Colorado and Washington measures passed in 2012, and Alaska, Oregon and District of Columbia in the fall of 2014.  That is 45 states with legal cannabis laws and 8 of those states have complete legal adult use of cannabis.

1. At least 30 states passed legislation related to industrial hemp. Generally, states have taken three approaches: (1) establish industrial hemp research and/or pilot programs, (2) authorize studies of the industrial hemp industry, or (3) establish commercial industrial hemp programs. At least 16 states have legalized industrial hemp production for commercial purposes and 20 states have passed laws allowing research and pilot programs. Seven states—Colorado, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, North Dakota, Rhode Island and Virginia—have approved the creation of both pilot/research and commercial programs.

2. Hemp Defined. Noun (noun: hemp; noun: Indian hemp; plural noun: Indian hemps)
The cannabis plant, especially when grown for its fiber, the fiber of the cannabis plant, extracted from the stem and It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp are both members of the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), they are distinct strains with unique biochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has extremely low concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), which eliminates its psychoactive effects. Hemp nutritional properties are;  Protein: 31.56 g (per 100 g), Energy: 585.8 Calories (per 100 g), Iron: 7.95 mg (per 100 g), Magnesium: 700 mg (per 100 g), Potassium: 1.2 g (per 100 g), & Calcium: 70 mg (per 100 g) ~ All Good For The Human Body! Green Chile and Hemp Seeds would be a great Super Food.

3. Bullet Proof With Hemp.
Legalizing Hemp In New Mexico Will Save The Lives Of Police.
Hemp fiber is stronger than kevlar fiber. Compared to the system of creating Kevlar or forging metal, growing hemp is an all-natural process requiring only soil, sun, water and time. Hemp is better for the environment because of this, but also because the material created out of hemp is still biodegradable, as opposed to plastic. The final material is also lighter than Kevlar or steel, which is good news for soldiers who have to wear nearly 31 pounds of body armor to protect themselves. Many decades later, military scientists are looking for newer and lighter body armors for the modern soldier. While Kevlar has been the mainstay for nearly a generation, the search remains for something even stronger to protect wearers from harm. Hemp plastic might just be it. It is already understood in the automobile industry that parts created out of hemp are ten times stronger than steel, and many cars use them already. Why not apply the same technological theory to body armor?
Bulletproof Hemp2A company in Amsterdam called Hemp Works already offers a hefty bulletproof jacket called the Hemp Hoodlamb that is rated at a respectable level II-A, which the manufacturers claim has been tested with .22, 9mm and .357 magnum bullets. This could be done in New Mexico and be a new industry that creates: jobs, income for the state and saves lives!
Photo Credit: ireadculture
4. Hemp Is A Cash Crop.  
Hemp legalization for New Mexico in conjunction with the utilization of solar, wind, and geothermal energy sources would be a giant leap forward in breaking it’s dependence on the federal government and oil revenues. This will create jobs, has vast potential for the state universities to benefit, and creates a new business market to keep college graduates in New Mexico.  In spite of the absence of rules or regulations, some existing academic institutions, including New Mexico State University, Santa Fe Community College and the University of New Mexico’s Anderson School of Management, have expressed interest in studies ranging from seed research, food and nutraceuticals, to pharmaceutical grade CBD—a compound found in hemp—for potential epilepsy and cancer medicines. Recent economic reports suggest that the U.S. market for hemp is at a minimum $600 million per year. Industry observers count as many as 25,000 uses for industrial hemp, including food, cosmetics, plastics and bio-fuel. The U.S. is currently the world’s number-one importer of hemp fiber for various products, with China and Canada acting as the top two exporters in the world. Canada has had industrial hemp since 1998, and farmers there have reported net profits of $200 to $250 per acre. Most Canadian hemp is exported to the United States.
The “Hemp Amendment”. Early in 2014, President Obama signed a new farm bill into law, which included a provision allowing states to begin limited research programs growing hemp. The “hemp amendment”: …allows State Agriculture Departments, colleges and universities to grow hemp, defined as the non-drug oil-seed and fiber varieties of Cannabis, for academic or agricultural research purposes, but it applies only to states where industrial hemp farming is already legal under state law. In short, current federal law authorizes the farming of hemp – by research institutions only, for research only. These states also authorizes commercial farming and production.

5. Hemp Cleans Air, Eats Radiation, And Cleans Toxic Metals From Soil.
New Mexico sues EPA, mine owners over massive gold mine waste spill. ... The Gold King Mine rupture, which was “accidentally” triggered by an EPA inspection team called there to inspect seepage, unleashed a torrent of yellow sludge that contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury and lead -3 million gallons of heavy metal sludge from the shuttered Gold King Mine gushed into a tributary of the Animas River, the Navajo Nation is suing the Environmental Protection Agency for what it sees as negligence in cleaning up the disaster. Many Navajo and New Mexicans are worried about potential long-term health effects from the heavy metals that have settled into the river sediment upstream from the Navajo Nation. Snowmelt and heavy rains can dredge up that sediment and send it coursing downstream once again.In other words, not only does hemp provide humans with innumerable products, it also helps to clean the environment of the mistakes we have made in the past. It has already been discovered that hemp may be extremely useful in the removal of cadmium from the soil and other toxic metals, as well as radiation. As cannabis journalist and researcher Seshata notes in her article “Hemp and the Decontamination of Radioactive Soil” – a number of studies that demonstrate hemp’s durability in the face of pollutants as well as its ability to remove metals from the soil. The concentration of this type of soil pollution has increased greatly in many locations across the world since the start of the industrial revolution, Claire Moore, plant biologist and laboratory manager at Michigan-based cannabis testing facility Iron Labs, told Extract in an email.
“Phytoremediation describes the treatment of environmental problems, often contamination with heavy metals, through the use of plants that help mitigate the contamination without the need to excavate the offending contaminant(s) and dispose of it elsewhere,” she explains.
It’s a relatively new technology that’s gaining international attention due to its cost-effective, non-intrusive method of “exploiting the ability of certain species of plants to remediate pollutants from contaminated sites,” Moore said.Researchers at Nova Institute, an ecology R&D group based in Germany, found that hemp has a “favorable influence on the soil structure” because it curtails the presence of nematodes and fungi, and it has a high shading capacity that suppresses weed growth. In one study cited by the researchers, a hemp rotation was found to increase wheat yields by 10 to 20 percent. Hemp can also grow in the most inhospitable and otherwise useless soils, such as those polluted by heavy metals. Grown alone, used in rotation or planted on abandoned farmland, hemp is an environmental win.

6. Legalization of hemp in New Mexico would also help facilitate a Navajo Tribe resolution to grow industrial hemp. According to a report published in Forbes, the Navajo will work with CannaNative to develop industrial hemp farming. The organization assists tribes in developing hemp and cannabis-based economies on Native American lands throughout the United States. Tribal lands cover parts of New Mexico, Utah and Arizona. The farm where they plan to begin industrial hemp production is in New Mexico. Such a move would be entirely legal; as a sovereign nation, the Navajo Nation would not need the approval of the New Mexico state legislature or the Governor to move into industrial hemp cultivation and the light manufacture of derivative products as an economic opportunity. The same opportunity applies to any pueblo in New Mexico that might want to explore it. They can proceed with or without state legalization, but eliminating a layer of state laws would certainly make the path toward developing a hemp economy smoother. In April 2015 \, Governor Martinez vetoed a bill legalizing hemp production within the state. She cited contradictions between state and federal law, despite the fact of the “Hemp Amendment” (mentioned above #4). Early in 2014, President Obama signed a new farm bill into law, which included a provision allowing states to begin limited research programs growing hemp.. With most state legislatures having taken action to promote industrial hemp as an agricultural commodity in recent years, it’s time for New Mexico to join those ranks.
7. Forest Cover and Biodiversity. Although more than 95 percent of paper is made from wood pulp, hemp can play the same role. It can be recycled twice as many times as wood pulp, it can produce three to four times as much fiber per hectare as typical forests and even twice as much as a pine plantation. These abilities discussed by Dr. Ernest Small, Principal Research Scientist at the Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre in Ottawa, Canada, suggests that more reliance on industrial hemp could reduce dependence on old growth forests, which host the world’s greatest concentrations of biodiversity and absorb carbon dioxide. Forests can’t keep up with the pace of deforestation, but hemp could keep up with our appetite for paper products. Popular Mechanics dubbed hemp “the new billion dollar crop” in 1938, claiming that it “can be used to produce more than 25,000 products, ranging from dynamite to cellophane.” And when World War II demanded the full industrial might of the U.S., hemp restrictions were temporarily lifted and production reached its peak in 1943 when American farmers grew 150 million pounds of hemp. It was manufactured into shoes, ropes, fire hoses and even parachute webbing for soldiers fighting the war.